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Sirmione and its history

Thanks to its natural position, the peninsula of Sirmione was privileged place of settlement since ancient times. It still maintains many certifications of its long and uninterrupted history, with a density that is rarely found in other towns.
 
The oldest evidence of human presence dating back to the early Neolithic Po (second half of the sixth and fifth millennium BC). During the Bronze Age (III-II millennium BC) dwelling settlements are documented along the banks of the lake (Maraschina, Galeazzi harbor, San Francisco), but isolated discoveries in the same period have also taken place in some parts of town ("Caves di Catullo ", lido of Blondes, via Ancient Walls, gardens at St. Saviour).
 
Like other areas of the lake, from the first century BC the end of the peninsula becomes a place of residence chosen by rich Veronese families, including that of the Valeri. It belonged to the poet Catullus (87-54 BC), who in a poem sings the beauty of Sirmione and speaks of the house that had here.
 
At the end of the first century BC - Beginning of the first century A.D. go back to the two great Roman villas, the one known as "Grotte di Catullo" and that found in recent years between square mosaics-Via Vittorio Emanuele street-Ancient Walls. At the base of the peninsula ran the road that connected the Roman cities of Verona and Brescia at Sirmione, probably in the area of ‚Äč‚ÄčLugana old, was a stopping place for travelers, the Sermione mansio, documented Antonino Itinerary (third century AD ).
 
In late Roman (fourth-fifth century AD) Sirmione became a fortified control of the lower lake is built a wall of defense along the peninsula, a small inhabited center is established within the fortified walls. Even in the age longobarga, from the last quarter of the sixth century there is a documented settlement remains of huts and a necropoli.Verso the end of the Lombard kingdom in Sirmione was headed by a large district (iudiciaria Sermionese), directly under the sovereign . The Queen Ansa, wife of the Lombard king Desiderius, he founded a monastery and the church of San Salvatore. Other churches are mentioned as existing in the town in the eighth century documents (San Pietro in Mavino, San Martin, San Vito). The district Sirmionese loses its autonomy with Charlemagne, but Sirmione continues to maintain even after a special relationship with the sovereign, from which it obtains exemptions or concessions.
 
In the thirteenth century Sirmione became one of the points of the fortification system with the construction of the Scaliger Castle by probably Mastino I della Scala. During the same period Patarini refuge for heretics, and then condemned to the stake in Verona (1278). The function of control and defense, taken in late Roman, will continue until the sixteenth century, when the role of fortified center of the lower lake is replaced by Peschiera. The castle still remain that way until the mid nineteenth century garrison military.
 
Sirmione is located in a strategically important position between the plain and the southern part of the lake, a territory of the Scala seigniory and then, from the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Venetian Republic. And in Venice doomed until its fall in 1797.
 
In the nineteenth century the population was engaged in fishing and inland agriculture, with crops typical of the area, the olive, the vine, the mulberry tree. The development of mass tourism and the consequent large urban transformation of the area dates back to the Second World War. This phenomenon has contributed significantly to the presence of sulfur water, known for centuries, but whose healing abilities began to be exploited only by the end of the last century. Lyrics: E. Roffia, Archaeological Superintendence of Lombardy